Roy Schestowitz

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Business Organisation and Human Resources

Author: Roy Schestowitz / Course: Software Engineering

November 29th, 2002

This paper presents the answers to coursework requested for EW2491


1 Human Resources

Within the context of 'attributes of Individuals':

The enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally and socially preferable. (Rokeach, 72')
An individualistic, rational approach to life which sets the highest values on achievement, aggression, and affluence.
Predisposition or tendency of a person to evaluate some symbol, person, place, or thing in a favourable or unfavourable manner.
A component of a person's attitude which corresponds to his/her founded cognition of some element e.g. children are seen as irresponsible.
A component of a person's attitude which corresponds to his/her founded emotions towards some element e.g. I feel strongly about the Red threat.
A component of a person's attitude which corresponds to his/her founded behaviour e.g. I would rather be dead than Red.
The very basic elements that an individual needs to maintain life e.g. air, water, food and protection from physical danger.
The non-critical requirement of an individual for contact with other individuals in order to obtain interaction with others, sense of belonging and the beginning of feeling of personal worth.
The predicted outcome which an individual anticipates due to an appraisal of a given situation where the consequences are yet undetermined.
A pattern that makes up an individual's personality, distinguishing one from another and determining how he/she adjusts to their environment.
A personal disposition that comprises carefulness/reflectiveness/unsociability/inhibition/control/inactivity and responsibility. (Eysenck)
A personal disposition that comprises expressiveness/impulsiveness/risk-taking behaviour/sociability/practicality/expressiveness and irresponsibility. (Eysenck)
A personal disposition that comprises low self-esteem/little autonomy/unhappiness/anxiety/obsessiveness/hypochondria and guilt. (Eysenck)
A personal disposition that comprises self-esteem/autonomy/happiness/tranquility health and well-being/calmness and quiescence. (Eysenck)
An attitude (usually negative) towards the members of some specific group (racial, ethnic, sexual etc.) which causes the person holding it to evaluate others solely on the basis of their membership in that group.
Preconceived beliefs, expectations or notions held about members of a particular group.
Internals are individuals who believe they control their own fate or destiny, whereas externals believe much of what happens to them is uncontrolled and determined by outside forces.
Sensation-type individuals are those who prefer routine and order, and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information, whereas intuitive-type individuals prefer the big picture, like solving new problems, and dislike routine.
A perceived phenomenon under which an individual feels as if he/she cannot handle or cope with a situation.
Type A behaviour refers to individuals who are competitive, aggressive, restless, impatient and so forth, as oppose to those who are classified as type B which exhibits low sense of urgency, low sense of competitiveness and relative humbleness.

2 Business Organisation

Vertically, it is the extent to which an organisation is divided into specific levels of decision-making authorities and, Horizontally, it is the extent to which overall tasks are performed in specialised task units across the organisation.
Vertically, it is the extent to which there is coordination and control in the organisational hierarchy and, Horizontally, it is the extent to which there are coordination and control procedures across different functions of the organisation.
Differentiation and integration are contingent upon the size of the organisation, the technologies employed by the organisation and the nature of the organisational environment.
The form of hierarchical levels for which there is some precise specification or definition of well-defined procedures, duties, responsibilities or roles carried out by an individual.
The form of hierarchical levels for which there is some loosely-defined, flexible and changeable definition of procedures, duties, responsibilities or roles carried out by an individual.
The complexity of the production process within an organisation which, according to Woodward, has a correlation to the characteristic and structure of this organisation.
The extent to which the technology used in an organisation is predictable, which according to Perrow, is the key factor in assessing the impact of technology on the organisational structure.
The four basic dimensions of organisational structure: structuring of activities, concentration of authority, line control of the workflow and the supportive component.
The extent to which operations are continuous, in a fixed sequence and automated (Hickson, Pugh and Pheysey, 69'), where workflow refers to the production and distribution of outputs.
The determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals. (Chandler, 62')
For a more efficient and desirable operation within an organisation, some structural adaptation needs to occur once changes to the strategy, i.e. long-term goals and objectives, are agreed upon.
Organisational structures, which are a result of an expanding company decentralising, where this decentralisation is a weak one as one division would be carrying on a closely related business to the original firm and could account for up to 80 per cent of the total business.
The ideologies, beliefs and deep-set values which occur in all firms and are the prescriptions for the way in which people should work in those organisations. (Harrison, 72')
An organisational culture that depends upon a single source of influence where all the power is centralised within one person or a clique comprising a small number of persons.
An organisational culture in which positions within the firm are preset and are given primacy over the individuals who fill them.
An organisational culture in which instead of hierarchy having a considerable impact, it is the senior management that allocates projects to the various parts of the organisation, and the projects are worked on and developed autonomously by teams of staff who often get together for that project alone.
An organisational culture where the individual is the keynote and the organisation is there to serve the interests of the individuals who form it.
The approach according to which organisational culture has provided the long-elusive link between corporate success and effective and efficient organisation.
Under a planned change, targets are set, timetables for achieving intermediate goals are drawn up and the process is constantly monitored, whereas reactive change is about adapting to an already changed situation.

3 Notes

Fayol's principles of organisation:
  1. plan ahead
  2. keep records
  3. write down policies
  4. apecialise labour and tasks
  5. ensure commensurate responsibility with authority
  6. keep managers' spans of control to approx. 6 people
Experiments showed that people are influenced by inspection on them and that they are not part of a a factory driven life, but are social beings.

assembly line was name for process used.. socio-technical theories written on it.

Org. needs to deal with both technical and social aspect.

assembly line was casuing stress and illness.

assembly line:

  1. mechanically controlled workpace
  2. repetition
  3. requiring minimum skill
  4. giving no choice of tools or methods to the worker
  5. requiring only surface mental attention
role conflict - ppl who ind. interacts with have contrad. expectations about how he or she should bahve

ambiguity - uncertainty. nnot knowing what responsibilities arem authority, rules, security

overload and underload - doing too much or too little. overlaod -doing too many things at one. underload -boredom.

responsibility for others causes stress. also giving bad feedback gives blame and hard feelings.

lack of participation - perceived absence of input

alienation - work is a necessity IMPOSED upon him or her.

motivation - ind. feels work is bad or good, but still fulfilling and satisfying.

motives - internal drives and energies of ind.

needs - slefesteem, social, psychological

maslow - correlation b.w. job satisfaction and motivation

individual generates needs, needs increases motives, managers provide rewards which increase/decrease job satisfaction which motivate or de-motivate ind.

maslow's hierarchy of needs (most imp. first): self-actualisation (challenge), esteem, social, security, psychological.

McClelland- needs are: 1)achievement 2) affiliation 3) power


M-H theory Motivation-Hygiene:

1)two types of motivators - motivators hygiene factor (prevents dissatisfaction)

2) motivators: achievement, recognition, work itself, reponsibility, advancement

3) hygience factors: company policy and admin, supervision, interpersonal relations, money, status, security


equity theory, expectancy theory

equite theory - a person compares his wage to someone else's

expectancy theory - a.k.a. path-goal concept (P-G) - by Vroom - expectancies are:

1) ability to produce 2) work will be rewarded

content theories: concept of hedonism, ind. seek to satisfy all needs, assumes homogeniety of ind. and needs.

process theories: focus on choice behaviour, can't be implemented, over simplified... ignoes factors

reinforcement theory: a situational approach to movivation - repeated behaviour is fanction of expected consequence. (Thorndike)

satisfaction does not always increase performance.

pay is a reward system aspect; necessary for org. survival.

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